Nigeria Geographical Information

Nigeria Geographical Information


Nigeria, officially addressed as the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is the most populous country on the African continent. Nigeria is located on the west of Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea in the south, the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east and Niger in the north. Since 1991, its capital has been the centrally located city of Abuja, although the Nigerian government was previously headquartered in Lagos.


Nigeria is situated in the West African region and lies between longitudes 3 degrees and 14 degrees and latitudes 4 degrees and 140 degrees. It has a land mass of 923,768 It is bordered to the north by the Republics of Niger and Tchad. It shares borders to the west with the Republic of Benin, while the Republic of Cameroun shares the eastern borders right down to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the southern limits of Nigerian Territory. The about 800km of coastline confers on the country the potentials of a maritime power. Land is in abundance in Nigeria for agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.


Temperature across the country is relatively high with a very narrow variation in seasonal and diurnal ranges (22-36t). There are two basic seasons; wet season which lasts from April to October; and the dry season which lasts from November till March. The dry season commences with Harmattan, a dry chilly spell that lasts till February and is associated with lower temperatures, a dusty and hazy atmosphere brought about by the North-Easterly winds blowing from the Arabian peninsular across the Sahara; the second half of the dry season, February – March, is the hottest period of the year when temperatures range from 33 to 38 degrees centigrade. The extremes of the wet season are felt on the southeastern coast where annual rainfall might reach a high of 330cm; while the extremes of the dry season, in aridity and high temperatures, are felt in the north third of the country.


In line with the rainfall distribution, a wetter south and a drier northern half, there are two broad vegetation types: Forests and Savanna. There are three variants of each, running as near parallel bands east to west across the country. Forests Savanna Saline water swamp Guinea Savanna Fresh water swamp Sudan Savanna Tropical (high) evergreen Sahel Savanna

There is also the mountain vegetation of the isolated high plateau regions on the far eastern extremes of the country (Jos, Mambilla, Obudu).

The savanna, especially Guinea and Sudan, are the major grains, grasses, tubers, vegetable and cotton growing regions.

The Tropical evergreen rain forest belt bears timber production and forest development, production of cassava; and plantation growing of fruit trees – citrus, oil palm, cocoa, rubber, among others.

Geographic coordinates:

100 N, 80 E

 Land boundaries:

Total: 4,047 km

Coastline: 853 km

Border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km


Total area: 923,768 sq km

Land: 910,768 sq km

Water: 13,000 sq km

Coastline: 853 km

150 million (estimate)


Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


The climate varies across the country. The country has an equatorial climate in the south, tropical in the central region and arid in the north.


Southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus, mountains in the southeast, plains in north.

Elevation extremes:

Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources:

Petroleumtincolumbiteiron orecoallimestoneleadzincnatural gashydro power, arable land, etc.

Land use:

Arable land: 31.29%
Permanent crops: 2.96%
Others: 65.75% (2001)

Irrigated land: 2,330 sq km

Natural Hazards:

Periodic droughts and flooding.